Epididymal/Testicular Infection (Epididymitis/Orchitis)


This is when the testicle and/or the structure on the back to the testicle (epididymis) becomes inflamed.  Often this occurs in conjunction with a urinary tract infection.  The testicle will become tender and often enlarged during infection. Treatment will include symptomatic measures (scrotal support/elevation and medications for pain) and antibiotics. Other conditions can mimic testicular infection such as testicular torsion, trauma, hydrocele (fluid around the testicle), and inguinal hernia. Your doctors will often utilize a urinalysis and scrotal ultrasound to help guide diagnosis and treatment.

Prostate Infection (Prostatitis)

Inflammation or infection of the prostate is termed prostatitis.  It can present as an acute infection with infected urine and fever or with chronic low grade symptoms.  Chronic prostatitis is often not caused by a bacterial infection and may require multiple treatments to control your symptoms.

Prostatitis symptoms vary depending on the cause. They may include:

  • Pain or burning sensation when urinating (dysuria)
  • Difficulty urinating, such as dribbling or hesitant urination
  • Frequent urination, particularly at night (nocturia)
  • Urgent need to urinate
  • Pain in the abdomen, groin or lower back
  • Pain in the area between the scrotum and rectum (perineum)
  • Pain or discomfort of the penis or testicles
  • Painful orgasms (ejaculations)
  • Flu-like symptoms (with bacterial prostatitis)

Prostatitis treatments vary depending on the underlying cause. They can include:

  • Antibiotics. This is the most commonly prescribed treatment for prostatitis. Your doctor will base the choice of medication on the type of bacteria that may be causing your infection. If you have severe symptoms, you may need intravenous (IV) antibiotics. You'll likely need to take oral antibiotics for four to six weeks, but may need longer treatment for chronic or recurring prostatitis. Take all of the prescribed drugs as directed even if you're feeling better. Otherwise, treatment may not work. Your doctor may have you try one or more antibiotics even if the cause of your prostatitis can't be identified. If antibiotics don't help, your prostatitis is most likely caused by something other than a bacterial infection.
  • Alpha blockers. These medications help relax the bladder neck and the muscle fibers where your prostate joins your bladder. These medications are sometimes used in conjunction with antibiotics or in chronic cases of prostatitis which have not responded to antibiotics.  This treatment may lessen symptoms, such as painful urination. Examples include tamsulosin (Flomax), terazosin (Hytrin), alfuzosin (Uroxatral) and doxazosin (Cardura). Common side effects include headaches and a decrease in blood pressure.
  • Pain relievers. Pain medications such as aspirin or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others) may make you more comfortable. You should discuss with your doctor what doses you can safely take. Overusing these medications can cause problems.

Bladder Infection


Urinary Tract Infection

Urine is created in the kidneys and then carried through the ureters. The bladder then stores the urine until the urethra carries it out of your body. When you get a urinary tract infection (UTI), it usually begins in the bladder and urethra and, if left untreated, can spread to the ureters and kidneys.

UTI is very common and occurs when bacteria enter the opening of the urethra and multiply in the urinary tract. It can affect men, women and children.


Symptoms Of Urinary Tract Infection

Below are some common signs that you may have UTI:

  • Feel pain or burning when you urinate
  • You feel like you have to urinate often, but not much urine comes out when you do
  • Lower abdomen feels tender or heavy
  • You have pain on one side of your back, under your ribs
  • Fever and chills
  • Nausea and vomiting


Generally speaking, antibiotics can treat most UTIs successfully. When deciding on a treatment for UTI, the goal is to relieve symptoms, eliminate the infection and prevent recurrence. It’s also important to prevent any serious complications that can come as a result of treatment.

Pregnant women are treated in a way that protects both them and the fetus. The amount of medicine and how long you take it will depend on the infection and the type of medication itself.

Initial Treatment

Treatment of uncomplicated bladder infections usually involves antibiotics and hydration (drinking more water). Oral antibiotics are used for 3 days to treat straightforward bladder infections and this may sometimes be extended in complex cases. Often taking Azo-Standard or Pyridium will help with the burning sensation with urination. If obstruction is present, a catheter to drain the bladder may be needed.

Treatment If Condition Gets Worse Or Returns

If your UTI doesn’t improve after antibiotics, you will need further evaluation and additional treatment. If the infection spreads and affects kidney function or causes widespread infection, you may need a hospital stay.

Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis)


What happens under normal conditions?

The kidneys function is to remove waste products from your body as urine. Urine travels from the kidneys to the bladder where it is excreted via the urethra. The kidneys in their healthy state are sterile, that is, they are not infected with bacteria. However, bacteria can infect the kidneys, usually by entering the urethra and ascending into the bladder (causing cystitis or urinary tract infection) and from the bladder continuing their ascent into the kidneys.

Cystitis (bladder infection) is very common in females, occurring in 1-3% of adult women per year. Extension of a bladder infection to the kidneys to cause pyelonephritis is less common (about 1 in every 30 cases of urinary tract infection) but more severe. Pyelonephritis risk is increased during pregnancy, with obstruction of the urinary system (from a kidney stone for example), with abnormalities of the urinary system (seen in young girls but also in adults due to diverticula and other abnormalities), with diabetes, and with a weakened immune system.

What are the signs of a kidney infection?

The symptoms of pyelonephritis are pain and tenderness in the flank (the part of the back between the ribs and the hip) with fever, and usually with frequent, urgent and/or painful urination. Nausea and vomiting are common. Much less common are lightheadedness, confusion or loss of consciousness due to sepsis and shock (this can occur if bacteria enter the bloodstream from the kidney).

Because it can be life threatening, it is important for you to seek immediate medical care should you have symptoms that suggest pyelonephritis. Many other problems in the pelvis and abdomen can cause symptoms that mimic pyelonephritis, such as kidney stones or appendicitis.

What are treatment options for pyelonephritis?

Pyelonephritis is treated with antibiotics. In many cases orally administered antibiotics will suffice, but with severe infection, or when someone is not able to tolerate pills because of vomiting, intravenous antibiotics may be required. In order to eradicate the infection and prevent relapse, a prolonged treatment course is required, usually a total of 2 weeks or more of antibiotics. Surgery may be needed if an obstruction in the urinary track is discovered.